Are Presidential Polls Bullshit?

The Problems with Political Polling

Photo by Elliott Stallion on Unsplash

Almost four years ago, the election of Donald Trump took most by surprise. Even the pessimistic prognosticators gave Trump just a 28% chance of winning. This along with the earlier Brexit vote caused a lot of teeth-gnashing among pundits. Why didn’t we see these results coming? Why were the polls so off?